ALEMANNIA (Region) Ancient Roman
Latin name for the lands where the Alemanni lived. The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes who lived around the upper Rhine river in the time of the Roman Empire.
ARMENIA (Country) English, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Greek, Norwegian, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek, Ancient Persian
From Greek Αρμενια (Armenia)
, which was from Old Persian Armina
, which is itself probably of Armenia origin. This is the name of a country in the Caucasus region, called Hayastan
ASHUR (Settlement & Region) English, Arabic, Persian, Akkadian
From Akkadian 𒀸𒋩 (Assur)
, meaning unknown. This was the capital city of the Assyrian Empire, supposedly named for the god Ashur
, though the god was in fact probably named for the city. The empire, Assyria, was also named for it. The city was destroyed in the 14th century by the forces of Tamerlane.... [more]
AURELIANUM (Settlement) Ancient Roman
Means "of AURELIANUS
" in Latin. This was the name of a city in Gaul (modern Orléans
, France), which was renamed in honour of the 3rd-century Roman emperor Aurelian.
BABYLON (Settlement) English, German, Dutch, Biblical, Ancient Roman, Biblical Latin, Ancient Greek, Biblical Greek
Greek form of Akkadian 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 (Babili)
, which appears to mean "gateway of God", from Akkadian 𒆍 (babu)
meaning "gate" and 𒀭 (ilu)
meaning "God", though it may in fact derive from a non-Semitic language. This was the name of a major city in ancient Mesopotamia, the capital of the Babylonian Empire. It was located in present-day Iraq.
BELGICA (Region & Political Subdivision) Ancient Roman
Derived from the Belgae
, a Celtic-Germanic confederation of tribes that inhabited northern Gaul (modern Belgium
). Their name is probably derived from a Celtic root meaning "to swell with anger".
CALE (Settlement) Ancient Roman
Possibly from Celtic gall
meaning "Gaul, Celt". This was the name of an ancient town in what is now Portugal, near the modern city of Porto
ESHARRA (Other) Ancient Assyrian
From Sumerian 𒂍 (e)
meaning "temple, house" and 𒊹 (shar)
meaning "totality, world". This was the name of the main temple dedicated to the god Ashur in the city of Ashur
INDUS (River) English, Ancient Roman
From Persian Hindu
, which was from Sanskrit सिन्धु (Sindhu)
meaning "body of trembling water, river". This is the name of a river in Pakistan and India.
NEPAL (Country) Nepali, Indian, Hindi, English, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Sanskrit
From Sanskrit नेपाल (Nepal)
, of unknown meaning. This is the name of a landlocked country in south Asia.
OLYMPOS (Mountain) Ancient Greek, Greek
Meaning unknown. This is the name of the highest mountain in Greece. According to legend is the home of the Greek gods.
PERSIA (Country) Ancient Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
Latin form of Greek Περσις (Persis)
, from Old Persian Parsa
. This is the name used in the West for a region in western Asia, as well as several empires which were based there, including the Achaemenid Empire, Parthian Empire, and Sasanian Empire. This was also the Western name for the country of Iran until 1935, when the king requested that the native name Iran
be used instead.
PETRA (Settlement) Ancient Greek, English
From Greek πετρα (petra)
meaning "rock". This was the Greek name of the capital city of the Nabataeans, which may have been known as Raqmu
to its Semitic inhabitants. Its ruins lie in Jordan
ROMANIA (Country & Region) English, Italian, Ancient Roman
From Latin meaning "land of the Romans" (see ROME
). This is the name of a country in eastern Europe, so named in the 16th century because of its historic and linguistic connections to the Roman Empire.... [more]
SYRIA (Country & Region) English, Polish, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek
From Greek Συρια (Syria)
, which was probably a variant of ASSYRIA
, used in an expanded sense to refer to the northern Levant. This was the name of a province of the Roman Empire. It is now the name of a country in western Asia, having gained independence from the Ottoman Empire early in the 20th century.
URUK (Settlement) Akkadian, English
From Sumerian 𒌷 (uru)
meaning "city". This was the name of a city-state of ancient Sumer (later Akkad and Babylonia). It was inhabited until the time of the Islamic conquest of the area.
VENKATA (Mountain) Indian, Hindi, Sanskrit
Possibly means "self-born" in Sanskrit. This is the name of a sacred hill in southern India.