BRETAGNE (Region) French, German
French form of Britannia
). In French this typically refers to the region known as Brittany in France, while Great Britain is called Grande-Bretagne
BRITAIN (Region) English
, the Latin name for the island of Great Britain, the land of the Britons. It derives from the name of the Britons, recorded in Greek in the 4th century BC as Πρεττανικη (Prettanike)
, and reconstructed as Proto-Brythonic *Priteni
, possibly meaning "tattooed people".
BRITTANY (Region) English
). This is the name of a region in northwestern France, so called because many Britons settled there after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. It had earlier been called Armorica
. In the Middle Ages it was sometimes called Britannia Minor
to distinguish it from the island of Great Britain. In French, both the island and the region are called Bretagne
CARLISLE (Settlement) English
Originally called by the Romans Luguvalium
meaning "stronghold of LUGUS
". Later the Brythonic element ker
"fort" was appended to the name of the city. This is the name of a city in Cumbria in northern England.
ÉIRE (Country & Island) Irish
Possibly means "abundant land" in Old Irish. This is the Irish name of the country and island of Ireland. According to legend the island was named for the goddess ÉRIU
, though in fact it was she who was named for the island.
FOULDEN (Settlement) English
From Old English fugol
meaning "bird" and dun
meaning "hill". This is the name of a town in Norfolk.
HAMILTON (Settlement) English
Means "crooked hill" from Old English hamel
"crooked, mutilated" and dun
"hill". This was the name of a town in Leicestershire, England (which no longer exists). After the town name became a surname, it was used for several other cities, including ones in Scotland, Canada, Australia and the United States.
KENDAL (Settlement) English
From the name of the river KENT
combined with Old English dæl
meaning "valley, dale". This is the name of a town in Cumbria.
KENT (Political Subdivision & River) English
Possibly from a Brythonic element meaning "border, edge, coast". This is the name of a historic kingdom and modern county in southeastern England, called Cent
in Old English, Cantium
in Latin. It is also the name of a river in Cumbria, northwestern England.
LYNDON (Settlement) English
From Old English lind
"linden tree" and dun
meaning "hill". This is the name of a few towns in the United Kingdom.
LYON (Settlement) French, English, German
From Latin Lugdunum
, derived from the name of the Celtic god LUGUS
combined with Gaulish dunon
meaning "hill fort, citadel". This is the name of a city in central France.
SHANNON (River) Irish
Probably from Old Irish sen
meaning "old, ancient". This is the name of a river in Ireland. It is personified by the goddess Sionann
SLANE (Settlement) Irish
From the given name SLÁINE
. This is the name of a town in Ireland, said to be named for the legendary high king Sláine.
YORK (Settlement & Political Subdivision) English
, the Latinized form of a Brythonic name like Eburacon
meaning "yew". It was altered by association with Old English Eoforwic
meaning "pig farm". This is the name of a city in northern England. The American city and state of New York were named after the Duke of York (James II of England).