Ancient Roman Place Names

These names were used in ancient Rome and many parts of the Roman Empire. See also about Roman names.
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AFRICA(Region)English, Ancient Roman
Of Latin origin, possibly from the Afri people who lived near Carthage in North Africa.
ALEMANNIA(Region)Ancient Roman
Latin name for the lands where the Alemanni lived. The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes who lived around the upper Rhine river in the time of the Roman Empire.
ALEXANDRIA(Settlement)English, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek (Latinized)
From the Greek given name Αλεξανδρος (see ALEXANDER), bestowed by Alexander the Great upon the cities he founded or conquered. This is the name of many cities throughout the world, notably in Egypt.
ARMENIA(Country)English, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Greek, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek, Ancient Persian
From Greek Αρμενια (Armenia), which was from Old Persian Armina, which is itself probably of Armenia origin. This is the name of a country in the Caucasus region, called Hayastan in Armenian.
ASISIUM(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of ASSISI.
ASSYRIA(Region)English, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek
From Greek Ασσυρια (Assyria), derived from Akkadian Ashurayu, itself from the name of the empire's capital city ASHUR. This was the name of an ancient Mesopotamian kingdom and empire.
ATHENAE(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of ATHENS.
BABYLON(Settlement)English, German, Dutch, Biblical, Ancient Roman, Biblical Latin, Ancient Greek, Biblical Greek
Greek form of Akkadian 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 (Babili), which appears to mean "gateway of God", from Akkadian 𒆍 (babu) meaning "gate" and 𒀭 (ilu) meaning "God", though it may in fact derive from a non-Semitic language. This was the name of a major city in ancient Mesopotamia, the capital of the Babylonian Empire. It was located in present-day Iraq.
BADALOCUM(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of BAGGIO.
BERGOMUM(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of BERGAMO.
BOIOHAEMUM(Region)Ancient Roman
Latin form of BOHEMIA (mentioned in Tacitus' 1st-century book 'Germania').
BONONIA(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of BOLOGNA.
BRITANNIA(Region)Ancient Roman
Latin form of BRITAIN.
CAIATIA(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of CAIAZZO.
CALE(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Possibly from Celtic gall meaning "Gaul, Celt". This was the name of an ancient town in what is now Portugal, near the modern city of Porto.
CALVIANUM(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of CAIVANO.
COLONIA(Settlement)Ancient Roman, Italian, Spanish
Latin form of COLOGNE, as well as the Italian and Spanish form.
DANUBIUS(River)Ancient Roman
Latin form of DANUBE.
DELPHI(Settlement)Ancient Roman, English
Latinized form of Greek Δελφοι (Delphoi), from δελφυς (delphys) "womb". This was the name of an ancient Greek city, the site of an oracle of Apollo.
EUPHRATES(River)English, Greek, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek
From Greek Ευφρατης (Euphrates), the name of a river in Mesopotamia. It is derived from Old Persian Ufratu, itself from Elamite or Sumerian, of unknown meaning.
EURIPUS(Body of Water)Ancient Roman
Latin form of EURIPOS.
FORUM IULII(Settlement & Region)Ancient Roman
Latin form of FRIULI, the name of both the region and the town.
GERMANIA(Country)Ancient Roman, Italian
Latin and Italian form of GERMANY.
GRAECIA(Country)Ancient Roman
Latin form of GREECE.
HISPANIA(Country)Ancient Roman
Latin form of SPAIN, referring originally to the entire Iberian Peninsula.
INDIA(Country)English, Italian, Spanish, Dutch, Norwegian, Romanian, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek
Derived from the name of the INDUS River. In many languages of India, the name Bharat is used to refer to the country.
INDUS(River)English, Ancient Roman
From Persian Hindu, which was from Sanskrit सिन्धु (Sindhu) meaning "body of trembling water, river". This is the name of a river in Pakistan and India.
ITALIA(Country)Italian, Spanish, Ancient Roman
Italian, Spanish and Latin form of ITALY.
LAURETUM(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of LORETO.
LONDINIUM(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of LONDON.
LUGUVALIUM(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Older Roman name of CARLISLE.
MEDIOLANUM(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Latin form of MILAN.
NEAPOLIS(Settlement)Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek
Greek and Latin form of NAPLES.
NILUS(River)Ancient Roman
Latin form of NILE.
OLYMPUS(Mountain)Ancient Roman, English, Dutch
Latinized form of OLYMPOS.
PERSIA(Country)Ancient Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
Latin form of Greek Περσις (Persis), from Old Persian Parsa. This is the name used in the West for a region in western Asia, as well as several empires which were based there, including the Achaemenid Empire, Parthian Empire, and Sasanian Empire. This was also the Western name for the country of Iran until 1935, when the king requested that the native name Iran be used instead.
PORTUS CALE(Settlement)Ancient Roman
Means "port of CALE" in Latin. This was the name of the city now known as Porto. The name of the city was later applied to the entire region of Portugal.
ROMA(Settlement)Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan, Romanian, Ancient Roman
Latinate form of ROME.
ROMANIA(Country & Region)English, Italian, Ancient Roman
From Latin meaning "land of the Romans" (see ROME). This is the name of a country in eastern Europe, so named in the 16th century because of its historic and linguistic connections to the Roman Empire.... [more]
SILESIA(Region)English, Spanish, Ancient Roman
From Mount ŚLĘŻA or the River ŚLĘZA. This is the name of a historical region in southern Poland, with portions in the Czech Republic and Germany.
SYRIA(Country & Region)English, Polish, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek
From Greek Συρια (Syria), which was probably a variant of ASSYRIA, used in an expanded sense to refer to the northern Levant. This was the name of a province of the Roman Empire. It is now the name of a country in western Asia, having gained independence from the Ottoman Empire early in the 20th century.
VALENTIA(Settlement & Region)Ancient Roman
Latin form of VALENCIA.
VERONA(Settlement)Italian, Spanish, English, Ancient Roman
Meaning unknown, possibly of Latin, Gallic or Etruscan origin. This is the name of a city in northern Italy.