ACHTERBERG (Settlement) Low German
The name of various villages and estates in the Netherlands and Germany, derived from Low German achter
"behind" and berg
ASSISI (Settlement) Italian, English, German
From Latin Asisium
, which is of unknown, possibly pre-Latin, origin. This is the name of a city in central Italy.
BABYLON (Settlement) English, German, Dutch, Biblical, Ancient Roman, Biblical Latin, Ancient Greek, Biblical Greek
Greek form of Akkadian 𒆍𒀭𒊏𒆠 (Babili)
, which appears to mean "gateway of God", from Akkadian 𒆍 (babu)
meaning "gate" and 𒀭 (ilu)
meaning "God", though it may in fact derive from a non-Semitic language. This was the name of a major city in ancient Mesopotamia, the capital of the Babylonian Empire. It was located in present-day Iraq.
BOLL (Settlement) German
From Middle High German meaning "hill". This is the name of several towns in Germany.
BOLOGNA (Settlement) Italian, English, German
From Latin Bononia
, possibly derived from a Celtic word meaning "settlement". This is the name of a city in northern italy.
BRETAGNE (Region) French, German
French form of Britannia
). In French this typically refers to the region known as Brittany in France, while Great Britain is called Grande-Bretagne
DEUTSCHLAND (Country) German
Derived from the German deutsch
meaning "German" (ultimately from Germanic þeudo
"people") and Land
. This is the German endonym for Germany
ENGLAND (Country) English, German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian
From Old English Englaland
meaning "land of the Angles", the Angles being one of the Germanic tribes that settled in the area in the post-Roman period.
ESSEN (Settlement) German, English
From older Astnide
, possibly a derivative of Old High German asc
meaning "ash tree". This is the name of a city in Germany, founded in the 9th century.
FRANKREICH (Country) German
Derived from German Frank
, the name of a Germanic tribe, and Reich
meaning "empire, realm". This is the German name for France
GHANA (Country) English, French, German, Italian, Spanish
From the name of the Ghana Empire, which was located in the southwestern Sahara and existed up to the 13th century. Ghana
, meaning "warrior" in Mande, was actually the title of the rulers, while the empire itself was more properly known as Awkar
. In 1957 this was adopted as the name of the newly independent country of Ghana, formerly the British colony Gold Coast, despite the fact that the country lies outside the empire's territory.
GUINEA (Region, Country & Island) English, Italian, Spanish, German
From Portuguese Guiné
, which is of unknown meaning, possibly of Berber origin. This name was used by the Portuguese to refer to a portion of western Africa. It was also applied by westerners to the island of New Guinea starting in the 16th century. It is now the name or part of the name of the countries of Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea and Papua New Guinea.
HOLLAND (1) (Political Subdivision & Country) Dutch, English, German
From Old Dutch holt
"forest" and lant
"land". This is the name of two provinces (North and South Holland) in the Netherlands. It is sometimes used to refer to the entire country of the Netherlands.
HOLSTEIN (Political Subdivision & Region) German, English, Dutch
From the name of a Saxon tribe, derived from Old Saxon holt
meaning "wood" and sat
meaning "inhabitant". This is the name of a historical region in Germany, near the Danish border. It forms part of the name of the modern German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
IRAN (Country) Persian, Arabic, English, French, German, Italian, Croatian, Serbian
Derived from Middle Persian Eran
, related to Old Iranian Arya
meaning "Iranian, Aryan". This is the name of a country in western Asia, formerly called Persia
in the West.
JERUSALEM (Settlement) English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Biblical
From Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim)
, from an earlier Canaanite form like Urushalim
, probably meaning "established by (the god) SHALIM
". This is the name of a city in Israel and Palestine. Originally a Canaanite city, it was conquered by the Israelites under King David
at the beginning of the 10th century BC. It is now regarded as a holy city by Jews, Christians and Muslims.
JORDAN (River & Country) English, Danish, Norwegian, Croatian, Serbian, German, Swedish, Finnish, Polish, Biblical
River which flows between the countries of Jordan and Israel. The river's name in Hebrew is יַרְדֵן (Yarden)
, and it is derived from יָרַד (yarad)
meaning "descend" or "flow down". The river has lent its name to the country to the east (in German, Swedish, Finnish and Polish this is only the name of the river, with the name of the country taking a different form).
KONGO (Region, River & Country) Central African, Kongo, German, Dutch, Swedish, Finnish, Polish, Russian, Croatian, Serbian
Form of CONGO
KOREA (Country) English, German, Dutch, Finnish, Czech
From medieval Latin Corea
, itself derived from GORYEO
, the name of a kingdom which ruled most of the Korean Peninsula from the 10th to 14th centuries. This is the name of two countries, North and South Korea. Hanguk
are the Korean names for the countries.
NEPAL (Country) Nepali, Indian, Hindi, English, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Sanskrit
From Sanskrit नेपाल (Nepal)
, of unknown meaning. This is the name of a landlocked country in south Asia.
NIGER (River & Country) English, French, Italian, German, Dutch, Swedish, Croatian, Serbian, Late Roman
Meaning unknown, possibly of Berber origin, though influenced by Latin niger
"black". This is the name of a river in western Africa (and a country which is named after it).
NIGERIA (Country) English, French, Italian, Spanish, German
From the name of the NIGER
River, applied in the 19th century to the British colonial territory in western Africa. It continued to be used after the territory became an independent country in 1960.
OCHTRUP (Settlement) German
The name of a town in Germany, of uncertain meaning.
PADUA (Settlement) English, German
From Italian Padova
, Latin Patavium
, of unknown meaning. This is the name of a city in northern Italy.
PAKISTAN (Country) Urdu, Punjabi, English, Italian, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Polish, Slovak, Russian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian
From Persian پاک (pak)
meaning "pure" and the suffix ستان (stan)
meaning "land of". The name was coined in 1933 by the Pakistani nationalist Choudhry Rahmat Ali who justified it as an acronym of Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir and Sindh, plus the final three letters of Baluchistan.
PARIS (Settlement) French, English, German
From the ancient Celtic tribe known as the Parisii. This is the capital city of France.
PERU (Country) English, Portuguese, German, Dutch
From Spanish Perú
, older Birú
, which was possibly derived from the name of a chieftain (who nevertheless resided in modern-day Panama).
PORTUGAL (Country) Portuguese, English, French, Spanish, Galician, Catalan, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Croatian, Serbian
, which was derived from PORTUS CALE
, the old name of the city of Porto. The name of the city was later applied to the entire country.
PROVENCE (Region) French, English, German
From Latin provincia
meaning "province", a Roman territorial division. This is the name a region in southern France, originally acquiring its name because it was the first Roman province beyond the Alps.
ROMAGNA (Region & Political Subdivision) Italian, English, German
From Latin ROMANIA
, in this case the name of a historic region on the Adriatic coast of Italy (part of the modern administrative region of Emilia-Romagna).
RUSSLAND (Country) German
Derived from the medieval state of RUS
meaning "country, state". This is the German name for Russia
SAMARRA (Settlement) Arabic, English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French, German
This is the name of a city in Iraq, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century. It was possibly built at the site of the ancient Assyrian city of Surmarrati
, which is of uncertain meaning.
SCHWYZ (Settlement & Political Subdivision) German, English, Spanish
Meaning uncertain, possibly related to Old High German suedan
"to burn" or possibly of Celtic origin. This is the name of a town (and a canton named for it) in central Switzerland
STOCKHOLM (Settlement) Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, English, German, Dutch, French
From Swedish stock
"log" and holme
"islet". The islet probably referred to Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. This is the name of the capital city of Sweden. The first written mention of the name occurs in 1252.
SUDAN (Country) English, Arabic, German, Italian
From Arabic سُود (sud)
meaning "black", referring to the darker skin of the inhabitants. This is the name of a country in Africa. In Arabic it is properly written with the definite article: السُودان (al-Sudan)
URAL (Region & River) Russian, English, German, Turkish, Bashkir
Meaning unknown, possibly from Turkic aral
meaning "island, boundary". This is the name of a mountain range and a river in western Russia.
VALENCIA (Settlement & Region) Spanish, Italian, English, German
The name of a city and surrounding region in eastern Spain, originally named in Latin Valentia (Edetanorum)
meaning "strength (of the Edetani people)", and derived from Latin valentius
"strength, vigour", from valens
"strong, vigourous". Besides the city in Spain, this is also the name of a city in Venezuala.