AFGHANISTAN (Country) Pashto, Arabic, Urdu, Indian, Hindi, English, German, Dutch, French, Italian
From Pashto افغانستان (Afghanistan)
, from the Persian ethnic name افغان (Afkhan)
meaning "Afghan, Pashtun" combined with the Persian suffix ستان (stan)
meaning "land of". This is the name of a country in central Asia.
ALANKOMAAT (Country) Finnish
From Finnish alanko
"lowland" and maat
"lands". This is the Finnish name for the Netherlands
(for which it is also a translation).
ALBANIA (Region & Country) Late Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
Medieval Latin name for the region that was once occupied by the Illyrian tribe called Albanoi. This is the name of a country in the Balkans.
AMERICA (Region & Country) English, Italian, Romanian, Late Roman
From the name of the explorer AMERIGO
Vespucci (1451-1512). This is the name of two continents (North and South America). As well, it is commonly used to refer to the United States of America.
AMERIKA (Region & Country) German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Luxembourgish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Hungarian, Albanian, Georgian, Uzbek
Form of AMERICA
, used to refer to the continents and sometimes to the United States of America.
AMERYKA (Region & Country) Polish, Ukrainian
Polish and Ukrainian form of AMERICA
, used to refer to the continents and the United States of America.
AMRIKA (Region & Country) Arabic, Persian
Arabic and Persian form of AMERICA
, used to refer to the continents and the United States of America.
ANGOLA (Country) Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, Italian, German, Dutch, Polish, Croatian, Serbian
Portuguese form of Ngola
, the royal title of the kings of Ndongo, an African kingdom that was conquered by the Portuguese in the 17th-century. It was a Portuguese colony until 1975, when it became an independent country.
ARGENTINA (Country) Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Czech, Croatian, Serbian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
From Latin argentinus
, a derivative of argentum
meaning "silver". This is the name of a country in South America, arising from a Latinized form of Spanish Río de la Plata
meaning "river of silver".
ARMENIA (Country) English, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Greek, Norwegian, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek, Ancient Persian
From Greek Αρμενια (Armenia)
, which was from Old Persian Armina
, which is itself probably of Armenia origin. This is the name of a country in the Caucasus region, called Hayastan
BELGIUM (Country) English
From Latin BELGICA
, a province in the Roman Empire. Since 1830 this is the name of a country in western Europe. Dutch and French are the main spoken languages.
BELIZE (Country & River) English, Italian, Portuguese, German, Dutch
From Spanish Belice
, earlier Balis
, from the name of the Belize River, which may itself be from Mayan beliz
meaning "muddy water"
. This is the name of a country on the Atlantic coast of Central America.
BRAZIL (Country) English, Croatian, Serbian
From the name of a type of tree, called pau-brasil
in Portuguese (brazilwood
in English). It may ultimately derive from Portuguese brasa
meaning "ember". This is the name of a country in South America.
BULGARIA (Country) Late Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
From the name of the Turkic tribe of the Bulgars, possibly from a Turkic root meaning "mixed". This is the name of a country in southeastern Europe.
CANADA (Country) English, French, Italian, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian
Derived from the Iroquoian word kanata
. This word was used by Native Americans to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to Stadacona. Cartier used the word to refer to the region.
CATHAY (Country) English
From Old Turkic Khitai
, the name of a people who ruled northern China as the Liao dynasty from the 10th to 12th century, also called the Khitan people. This is an archaic English synonym for China
ČESKO (Country) Czech, Slovak
From the name of the Slavic tribe of the Czechs (see ČECHY
). This is the Czech name for the Czech Republic.
CHAD (Body of Water & Country) English, Spanish
From Arabic تشاد (Tshad)
, derived from a Kanuri word meaning "lake, large expanse of water"
. This is the name of a lake in central Africa, as well as the country that is named after it. The lake also borders Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon.
COLOMBIE (Country & Political Subdivision) French
French form of COLOMBIA
and sometimes of COLUMBIA
(for example Colombie-Britannique
for British Columbia
CONGO (River & Country) English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Danish
, of uncertain origin, the name of a kingdom in central Africa that existed from the 14th to 19th century. The Congo River (also called the Zaire
River) was named after the kingdom. Belgian and French colonies were established in the 19th century, named after the river, which eventually led to two African countries, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) and the Republic of the Congo.
CROATIA (Country) English, Late Roman
From Croatian Hrvatska
, from medieval Slavic Khorvatu
, of unknown meaning. This is the name of a country in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.
CYPRUS (Island & Country) English, Dutch
From Greek Κυπρος (Kypros)
, which may get its name from the cypress tree (Greek κυπαρισσος
). This is the name of an island country in the eastern Mediterranean. Although considered one nation by most other countries, the northern part of the island is occupied by Turkish forces and claims independence.
CZECHIA (Country) English
English form of ČECHY
(via Polish Czechy
), used as an alternative name for the Czech Republic (and not as a name for Bohemia
CZECHOSLOVAKIA (Country) English
Combination of CZECHIA
. This was the name of a country that existed between 1918 and 1993, at which time it split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
CZECHY (Region & Country) Polish
Polish form of ČECHY
, used to refer both to the region of Bohemia
and the larger Czech Republic.
DAEHAN (Country) Korean
From Sino-Korean 大 (dae)
meaning "big, great" and 韓 (han)
meaning "Korea". This is the official Korean name for South Korea
DENMARK (Country) English
From Danish Danmark
, derived from the ethnic name Dane
, which is possibly from Germanic den
meaning "low ground", combined with mark
meaning "borderland". This is the name of a country in northern Europe.
DEUTSCHLAND (Country) German
Derived from the German deutsch
meaning "German" (ultimately from Germanic þeudo
"people") and Land
. This is the German endonym for Germany
EGYPT (Country) English
From Latin Aegyptus
, itself from Greek Αιγυπτος (Aigyptos)
, which was probably derived from Egyptian hut-ka-Ptah
, the name of the temple to the god Ptah
, meaning "the house of the soul of Ptah"
. Descendants of the Latin name are used in most European languages to refer to the ancient kingdom and modern country of Egypt. However, the name the ancient Egyptians used to refer to the Nile Valley was Kemet
, and the Arabic speakers of modern Egypt call it Masr
ÉIRE (Country & Island) Irish
Possibly means "abundant land"
in Old Irish. This is the Irish name of the country and island of Ireland. According to legend the island was named for the goddess ÉRIU
, though in fact it was she who was named for the island.
ELLADA (Country) Greek
Modern Greek form of Ancient Greek ‘Ελλαδα
(Hellada), derived from ‘Ελλην (Hellen)
, which is of uncertain origin. This is the Greek endonym for Greece
ENGLAND (Country) English, German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian
From Old English Englaland
meaning "land of the Angles"
, the Angles being one of the Germanic tribes that settled in the area in the post-Roman period.
ESTONIA (Country) English, Italian, Spanish, Late Roman
From Estonian eesti
, a word borrowed from Low German in the 17th century. It is of uncertain origin. It could be from a Germanic rendering of the Baltic tribe of the Aesti, mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus.
ETHIOPIA (Country) English
From Greek Αιθιοπια (Aithiopia)
, derived from αιθω (aitho)
meaning "to burn" and ωψ (ops)
meaning "face", referring to the skin colour of the inhabitants. This is the name of a country in eastern Africa.
FIJI (Country) English, Portuguese, Indian, Hindi
English form of Fijian Viti
, of unknown meaning, the name of the largest island (called Viti Levu
meaning "great Viti") of the archipelago. The change from Viti
is reportedly explained by the fact that the British (on an 18th-century expedition of James Cook) first heard it pronounced this way by the neighbouring Tongans.
FRANCE (Country) French, English
From Latin Francia
meaning "land of the Franks"
. The Franks were the Germanic tribe who settled in the region in the 3rd century. They derived their tribal name from the name of a type of spear that they used.
FRANKREICH (Country) German
Derived from German Frank
, the name of a Germanic tribe, and Reich
meaning "empire, realm". This is the German name for France
GEORGIA (2) (Political Subdivision & Country) English, Spanish, Italian, German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish, Dutch
From the given name GEORGE
, named in honour of the British king George II. This was the name of an American colony, later a state.
GERMANY (Country) English
From Latin Germania
, first attested in the writings of Julius Caesar, used to refer to the areas east of the Rhine and north of the Danube. The origin of the term is uncertain. This is an English exonym corresponding to German Deutschland
GHANA (Country) English, French, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Polish, Czech, Slovak
From the name of the Ghana Empire, which was located in the southwestern Sahara and existed up to the 13th century. Ghana
, meaning "warrior"
in Mande, was actually the title of the rulers, while the empire itself was more properly known as Awkar
. In 1957 this was adopted as the name of the newly independent country of Ghana, formerly the British colony Gold Coast, despite the fact that the country lies outside the empire's territory.
GORJESTAN (Country) Persian
From Persian گرج (Gorj)
meaning "Georgia (the country)" combined with the suffix ستان (stan)
meaning "land of". This is the modern Persian name for the country of Georgia
GREECE (Country) English
English form of Latin Graecia
, the name used by the Romans for the land of the Greeks, derived from Greek Γραικος (Graikos)
, which is of uncertain origin. It is possibly derived from the city of Graia in Boeotia.
GUINEA (Region, Country & Island) English, Italian, Spanish, German
From Portuguese Guiné
, which is of unknown meaning, possibly of Berber origin. This name was used by the Portuguese to refer to a portion of western Africa. It was also applied by westerners to the island of New Guinea starting in the 16th century. It is now the name or part of the full name of the countries of Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea and Papua New Guinea.
HAYASTAN (Country) Armenian
From the Armenian word հայ (hay)
meaning "Armenian" combined with the Persian suffix ستان (stan)
meaning "land of". This is the Armenian name for Armenia
HAYK (Country) Armenian (Archaic)
From the Armenian word հայ (hay)
, of uncertain ultimate origin. Some theories claim it is from the name of the Armenian hero HAYK
, though it is more likely that they simply derive from the same source. This is an archaic Armenian name for Armenia
; the modern name is Հայաստան (Hayastan)
HIND (Country) Arabic
Arabic form of INDIA
, usually written with the definite article: الهند (al-Hind)
HOLLAND (1) (Political Subdivision & Country) Dutch, English, German
From Old Dutch holt
"forest" and lant
"land". This is the name of two provinces (North and South Holland) in the Netherlands. It is sometimes used to refer to the entire country of the Netherlands
HOLLANDE (Political Subdivision & Country) French
French form of HOLLAND (1)
, referring to the provinces and sometimes the entire country.
HUNGARY (Country) English
From Latin Hungaria
, derived from Byzantine Greek Ουγγροι (Oungroi)
, from Turkic Onogur
meaning "ten tribes"
. This is the name of a country in eastern Europe that was settled by the Hungarians in the 9th century. Because they were identified with the Huns, the H
was added to the beginning of their Latin name. The Hungarian name for the country is Magyarország
IGAUNIJA (Country) Latvian
From Latvian igaunis
, derived from the name of the old region of Ugandi
in southern Estonia. This is the Latvian name of Estonia
INDIJA (Country) Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene, Macedonian, Latvian, Lithuanian
Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovene, Macedonian, Latvian and Lithuanian form of INDIA
INDO (Country) Japanese
Japanese form of INDIA
. It is usually written in the katakana writing system.
INDONESIA (Country) Indonesian, Malay, Buginese, Minangkabau, English, Italian, Spanish, Norwegian, Finnish, Late Greek
From Greek Ινδος (Indos)
, referring to the INDUS
, combined with νησος (nesos)
meaning "island". This name has been used since the 18th century by colonial powers to refer to the Indonesian archipelago and since 1945 to refer to the independent nation.