CAIAZZO (Settlement) Italian
From Latin Caiatia
, a derivative of the given name CAIUS
. This is the name of a city near Naples.
CAIRO (Settlement) English
From Arabic القاهرة (al-Qahirah)
meaning "the victorious", in honour of the conquering Fatimid caliph al-Mu'izz li Din Allah (932-975). This is the name of the capital city of Egypt.
CAIVANO (Settlement) Italian
From Latin Calvianum
, a derivative of the cognomen CALVUS
. This is the name of a city near Naples.
CALE (Settlement) Ancient Roman
Possibly from Celtic gall
meaning "Gaul, Celt". This was the name of an ancient town in what is now Portugal, near the modern city of Porto
CANADA (Country) English, French, Italian, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian
Derived from the Iroquoian word kanata
meaning "village". This word was used by Native Americans to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to Stadacona. Cartier used the word to refer to the region.
CARLISLE (Settlement) English
Originally called by the Romans Luguvalium
meaning "stronghold of LUGUS
". Later the Brythonic element ker
"fort" was appended to the name of the city. This is the name of a city in Cumbria in northern England.
CARPATHIANS (Region) English
From Latin Carpates
, possibly related to the Dacian tribe of the Capri
, maybe derived from an Indo-European root meaning "rock, cliff". This is the name of a mountain range in eastern Europe stretching from Slovakia
CASTILE (Region) English
From Spanish Castilla
, ultimately from Late Latin castellum
meaning "castle". This was the name of a medieval kingdom in Spain.
CATALONIA (Region) English
From Catalan Catalunya
, of uncertain meaning, possibly from Latin castellum
"castle" or Gauthia Launia
"land of the Goths". This is the name of a region in eastern Spain.
CATHAY (Country) English
From Old Turkic Khitai
, the name of a people who ruled northern China as the Liao dynasty from the 10th to 12th century, also called the Khitan people. This is an archaic English synonym for China
CAVAN (Political Subdivision) Irish
Derived from Irish cabhán
meaning "hollow". This is the name of an Irish country.
CAWSTON (Settlement) English
From the Old Norse given name KÁLFR
combined with Old English tun
meaning "enclosure, yard, town". This is the name of towns in Norfolk and Warwickshire.
ČECHY (Region) Czech, Slovak
From the name of the Slavic tribe of the Czechs, probably derived from the Slavic root čelo
meaning "family, tribe". This is the Czech name of Bohemia
, while the Czech Republic is called Česko
ČESKO (Country) Czech, Slovak
From the name of the Slavic tribe of the Czechs (see ČECHY
). This is the Czech name for the Czech Republic.
CHAD (Body of Water & Country) English, Spanish
From Arabic تشاد (Tshad)
, derived from a Kanuri word meaning "lake, large expanse of water". This is the name of a lake in central Africa, as well as the country that is named after it. The lake also borders Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon.
CHADWICK (Settlement) English
Means "village belonging to CHAD
" in Old English. This is the name of towns in Lancashire and Warwickshire.
CHAVES (Settlement) Portuguese, Spanish
From the Roman name FLAVIUS
. This is the name of a Portuguese city, which was originally named for the Roman emperor Vespasian, whose family name was Flavius.
CHELSEA (Settlement) English
Originally derived from Old English and meaning "landing place for chalk or limestone". This is a district in London.
CHESHIRE (Region & Political Subdivision) English
Shortened form of Chestershire
, a combination of CHESTER
CHESTER (Settlement) English
From Latin castrum
meaning "camp, fortress". This is the name of a city in Cheshire, England.
COCKBURN (Settlement) English
From Old English cocc
"rooster" and burna
"stream". This was the name of a town in Berwickshire, Scotland.
COLOGNE (Settlement) French, English
French form of Latin Colonia
, shortened from Colonia Agrippina
meaning "colony of Agrippina", named after the wife of Emperor Claudius. This is the name of a city in western Germany.
COLOMBIE (Country & Political Subdivision) French
French form of COLOMBIA
and sometimes of COLUMBIA
(for example Colombie-Britannique
for British Columbia
COLTON (Settlement) English
's town" in Old English. This is the name of several English towns.
COLUMBIA (Region, Settlement, Political Subdivision & River) English, Italian, Spanish
Named after the explorer Christopher Columbus, called Cristoforo Colombo
in Italian (see the surname COLOMBO
). This is the name of several cities in the Americas (including the District of Columbia, also called Washington D.C.), and a river in Canada and the United States. It is also a name used historically to refer to the New World.
CONGO (River & Country) English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Danish
, of uncertain origin, the name of a kingdom in central Africa that existed from the 14th to 19th century. The Congo River (also called the Zaire
River) was named after the kingdom. Belgian and French colonies were established in the 19th century, named after the river, which eventually led to two African countries, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) and the Republic of the Congo.
COURTENAY (Settlement) French
From the Gallo-Roman given name Curtenus
, derived from Latin curtus
"short". This is the name of a few French communes.
CRAWFORD (Settlement) English
From Old English crawe
"crow" and ford
"ford, river crossing". This is the name various small towns in England.
CREMA (Settlement) Italian
Meaning uncertain, possibly from a Lombardic word meaning "hill". This is the name of a city in Cremona
(to which the name is unrelated) in northern Italy
CREMONA (Settlement & Political Subdivision) Italian
Probably from the name of the Celtic tribe the Cenomani, or possibly from a pre-Latin word meaning "stone". This is the name of a city and province in northern Italy
CROATIA (Country) English, Late Roman
From Croatian Hrvatska
, from medieval Slavic Khorvatu
, of unknown meaning. This is the name of a country in the Balkan region of southeastern Europe.
CUINCHY (Settlement) French
From older Quintiacum
, derived from the personal name QUINTIUS
plus the local suffix -acum
. This is the name of a village in France.
CZAJKÓW (Settlement) Polish
Derived from Polish czajka
meaning "lapwing (bird)". This is the name of several towns in Poland.
CZECHIA (Country) English
English form of ČECHY
(via Polish Czechy
), used as an alternative name for the Czech Republic (and not as a name for Bohemia
CZECHOSLOVAKIA (Country) English
Combination of CZECHIA
. This was the name of a country that existed between 1918 and 1993, at which time it split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
CZECHY (Region & Country) Polish
Polish form of ČECHY
, used to refer both to the region of Bohemia
and the larger Czech Republic.