Browse Submitted Place Names

This is a list of submitted place names in which an editor of the name is highexpectasians.
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Submitted names are contributed by users of this website. The accuracy of these name definitions cannot be guaranteed.
ABAKAN (Settlement & River) Russian, English
Derived from the name Abakhan which is the name of a mythological Turkish khan (king). His name means "bear's blood" in the Khakas language, and was bestowed to the present-day Abakan River and the city of the same name... [more]
ABKHAZIA (Country & Political Subdivision) English
Derived from Russian Абхазия (Abkhaziya), which is derived from Georgian აფხაზეთი (Apkhazeti); ultimately from Abkhaz Аҧсны (Aṗsny), meaning "country of mortals" (popularly "a land/country of the soul")... [more]
ABKHAZIYA (Country & Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of Abkhazia.
ADYGEA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from Adyghe адыгэ ‎(adyge) referring to an Adyghe person, collectively an ethnic group in the Caucasus. Adygea is a republic of Russia in the Caucasus region. It was formerly a part of the historic region of Circassia.
ADYGE KHEKU (Region) Adyghe
Adyghe form of Circassia.
ADYGEYA (Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of Adygea.
AFGHANISTAN (Country) English
Means "land of the Afghans (Pashtuns)"; a combination of the ethonym افغان (Afġān), used to refer to the native Pashtuns (the largest ethnic group inhabiting the region today), and the Persian suffix ـستان (-stān) meaning "land, place of", "country"... [more]
AGADIR (Settlement) English, Berber
Derived from Berber ⴰⴳⴰⴷⵉⵔ (agadir) meaning "wall, enclosure, fortified building, citadel". Agadir is a port city located in southwestern Morocco along the shore of the Atlantic Ocean.
AĞBAN (Settlement) Khakas
Khakas form of Abakan.
ALASKA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from Russian Аляска (Alyaska), which in turn is derived from Aleut alaxsxaq meaning "object to which the action of the sea is directed". Alaska is the largest of the 50 American states, located northwest of the United States mainland and bordering Canada.
AL-JAZAIR (Country & Settlement) Arabic
Arabic form of Algeria and Algiers (the city and country share the same Arabic name).
AL-MAGHRIB (Country) Arabic
Arabic form of Morocco.
ALMATY (Settlement) Kazakh, Russian, English
Meaning disputed. One theory suggests that the name comes from Almatu, a medieval tribe that inhabited the area near present-day Almaty. Another states that the name is derived from the Kazakh word алма (alma) meaning "apple".
AL-QAWQAZ (Region) Arabic
Arabic form of Caucasus.
ALTAI (Political Subdivision & Mountain) English, Mongolian, Russian, Altai, Kazakh
Combination of Mongolian алт (alt) meaning "gold" and тай (tay) meaning "with" (wholly meaning "the mountain with gold"). The Altai Republic is a federal subject north of Mongolia in Russia... [more]
ALTAY (Political Subdivision & Mountain) Russian, Kazakh, Kyrgyz
Russian, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz form of Altai.
ANDALUCÍA (Political Subdivision) Spanish
Spanish form of Andalusia.
APKHAZETI (Country & Political Subdivision) Georgian
Georgian form of Abkhazia.
ARENDELLE (Region & Settlement) Popular Culture
Likely based on Arendal, the name of a town and municipality in Southern Norway. Arendalle is a fictional kingdom in Disney's animated movie 'Frozen' (2013).
ARGÉLIA (Country) Portuguese
Portuguese form of Algeria.
AŞGABAT (Settlement) Turkmen
Turkmen form of Ashgabat.
ASHGABAT (Settlement) English, Yoruba, Scots, Occitan, Malay, Swahili, Irish, Indonesian, Welsh, Shona
Means "city of love", "city of devotion" from Persian عشق‌آباد (ešq-âbâd), a combination of Persian عشق ('ešq) meaning "love" and آباد (âbâd) "city". This is the name of the capital city of Turkmenistan.
AṖSNY (Country & Political Subdivision) Abkhaz
Original Abkhaz form of Abkhazia.
ASTANA (Settlement) Kazakh, English
Derived from Persian آستانه (âstâne) meaning "capital". Astana is the current capital city of Kazakhstan, and was formerly named Akmoly, Akmolinsk, Tselinograd, and Akmola.
AZERBAIJAN (Country) English
Derived from Persian آذربایجان (âzarbâyjân) which is ultimately from Middle Persian Ādurbādagān referring to Atropates, the Persian nobleman who founded the kingdom of Atropene... [more]
AZƏRBAYCAN (Country) Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani form of Azerbaijan.
BAIKAL (Body of Water) Russian, English
Derived from Mongolian Байгал нуур (Baygal nuur) meaning "nature lake"; from Mongolian байгалө (baigalö) "nature" and нуур (nuur) "lake". Lake Baikal is a rift lake in Siberia of Russia and the largest freshwater lake in the world.
BAKI (Settlement) Azerbaijani
Azerbaijani form of Baku.
BAKU (Settlement) English
Derived from Persian باد-کوبه (Bād-kube) meaning "wind-pounded city" (bād meaning "wind" and kube meaning "to pound". Baku is the capital of the Transcaucasian country of Azerbaijan.
BǍLGARIJA (Country) Bulgarian
Bulgarian form of Bulgaria.
BANGLADESH (Country) English, Breton, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Interlingua, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish, Swahili, Swedish
Means "land of the Bengalis", from Bengali বাংলা (Bangla) meaning "Bengali" (referring to the Bengali people or Bengali language spoken by the Bengali people), which is ultimately from Vanga, the name of an ancient kingdom on the Indian subcontinent (see Bengal) combined with দেশ (desh) "country, land, state", ultimately from Sanskrit देश (deśá)... [more]
BASHKIRIA (Political Subdivision) English
Variant name for Bashkortostan.
BASHKIRIYA (Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of Bashkiria.
BASHKORTOSTAN (Political Subdivision) Russian, English
Means "land of the Bashkirs"; a combination of Bashkir—from Turkic baş meaning "head, chief, main, principal" and kurt meaning "wolf"—and the Persian suffix ـستان (-stan) meaning "land, place of", "country"... [more]
BAŞQORTOSTAN (Political Subdivision) Bashkir
Bashkir form of Bashkortostan.
BELGRADE (Settlement) English
Derived from Slavic beli, beo meaning "white" and grad meaning "city, town". The name comes from a white wall of a fortress that protected the city.
BEOGRAD (Settlement) Serbian
Serbian form of Belgrade.
BHUTAN (Country) English
Meaning uncertain, though one theory suggests an origin from Tibetan བོད (Bod), referring to the present-day region of Tibet in China, which ultimately derives from Sanskrit भोट-अन्त (Bhoṭa-anta) meaning "end of Tibet", relating to Bhutan's geographical position as the southern extremity of the Tibetan plateau... [more]
BIR LEHLOU (Settlement) English
Derived from Hassaniya Arabic bir lehlou meaning "sweet water well". Bir Lehlou is an oasis town in the Polisario-controlled region in northeastern Western Sahara.
BISHKEK (Settlement) Kyrgyz, Russian, English
Meaning uncertain. It could be derived from besh meaning "five" and kek meaning "chiefs", the word pishagakh meaning "place beneath the mountains" or from Kazakh besh meaning "five" and bik meaning "peaks"... [more]
BOULDER (Settlement) English
Name of a city in Colorado, from Middle English bulderston, from a Scandinavian source akin to Swedish dialectal bullersten "noisy stone", (Swedish buller "rumbling noise" + sten "stone".
BRUNEI (Country & River) English, Malay
According to legend, the name "Brunei" is derived from the exclamation Baru nah! meaning "that's it!" or "there", shouted by Sultan Muhammad Shah (also known as Awang Alak Betatar), the first sultan of Brunei... [more]
BUCHAREST (Settlement) English
Meaning uncertain. Traditional etymologies state that the city's name is derived from Bucur, the name of a prince, outlaw, fisherman, shepherd, or hunter (depending on the specific legend), whose name is derived from Romanian bucurie meaning "joy, happiness", probably of Dacian origin... [more]
BUCUREȘTI (Settlement) Romanian
Original Romanian form of Bucharest.
BURYATIA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from the name Buryat with an unknown meaning, denoting the indigenous Mongolic people who originally inhabited the area. Buryatia is a federal subject of Russia located in Siberia.
BURYATIYA (Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of Buryatia.
CAMBODIA (Country) English
From an Anglicization of the French Cambodge, which comes from Khmer កម្ពុជា (Kampuchea), in turn derived from Sanskrit कम्बोजदेश (Kambujadeśa), composed of देश (deśá) "province, country, kingdom" and कम्बोज (kāmboja) which refers to the foundation myths of the first ancient Khmer kingdom and the Kamboja tribe of Iron Age India... [more]
CASABLANCA (Settlement) English, Spanish
Means "white house", from Portuguese casa meaning "house" and branca meaning "white". The present-day spelling follows the Spanish form (casa "house"; blanca "white"), however, because of the Portuguese Kingdom joining the Spanish Kingdom... [more]
CAUCASUS (Region & Mountain) English
English form of the Greek Καύκασος (Kaúkasos) of unknown meaning, perhaps derived from Scythian *χrohu-käsi meaning "ice-shining" or "white with snow", of Greek origin meaning "seagull's mountain", or from a compound word meaning "high mountain"... [more]
CHĂVASH EN (Political Subdivision) Chuvash
Chuvash form of Chuvashia.
CHECHNYA (Political Subdivision) Russian, English
Derived from Russian Чечня (Chechnya), which is possibly from Kabardian shashan with an unknown meaning. The term "Chechen" was first seen in Arabic texts in the 8th century. Chechnya (known as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria during the Chechen secession from Russia in the 1990s) is a Russian republic located in the Caucasus.
CHERKESIYA (Region) Russian
Russian form of Circassia.
CHUKOTKA (Political Subdivision) Russian, English
Derived from the Russian name Чукчи (Chukchi), referring to the native people who originally inhabited the area. The word Chukchi is derived from Chukchi Chauchu meaning "rich in reindeer", used by the Reindeer Chukchi people to distinguish themselves from the Maritime Chukchi (the Anqallyt meaning "sea people")... [more]
CHUVASHIA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from the name Chuvash, referring to the indigenous Turkic ethnic group originally inhabiting the area. The etymology of the name Chuvash is disputed; there are three main theories of its origin... [more]
CHUVASHIYA (Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of Chuvashia.
CIṄKAPPŪR (Country) Tamil
Tamil form of Singapore.
CIRCASSIA (Region) English
Derived from a a Latinization of the name Cherkess (spelled as Çerkes in modern Turkish), which is the Turkic name for the Adyghe people, the indigenous people that inhabited the area... [more]
CRIMEA (Political Subdivision & Region) English
Derived from Crimean Tatar Qırım (today known as Stary Krym), the old name for the city that served as the capital of the province during the Golden Horde. The meaning of "Qırım" is uncertain, though it is either of Greek or Turkic origin... [more]
DAGESTAN (Political Subdivision) English, Russian
Combination of Turkic dağ meaning "mountain" and the Persian suffix ـستان (-stān) meaning "land, place of". Dagestan is a federal subject in southern Russia situated in the Caucasus region.
DAĞISTAN (Political Subdivision) Avar
Avar form of Dagestan.
DELAWARE (Political Subdivision) English
Name of a state in the United States, named after the Delaware river, which was named after Lord De La Warr, from French de la guerre or de la werre literally "of the war".
DUBLIN (Settlement) English, Croatian
From Irish dubh "black" "dark" referring to a dark tidal pool where the River Poddle entered the Liffey on the site of the Castle Gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle.
DUŞANBE (Settlement) Tajik
Tajik variant of Dushanbe.
DUSHANBE (Settlement) Tajik, English
Derived from Persian دوشنبه meaning "Monday". Dushanbe is the capital city of the Central Asian nation of Tajikistan. It was formerly called Dyushambe and Stalinabad during Russian rule.
DZÆUDZHYQÆU (Settlement) Ossetian
Ossetian form of Vladikavkaz, meaning "Dzaug's settlement".
EL AAIÚN (Settlement) Spanish
Spanish form of Laayoune.
EURÓPA (Region) Hungarian, Slovak
Hungarian and Slovak form of Europe.
EUROPE (Region) English, French
Meaning uncertain. It could be derived from Greek εὐρύς (eurus) meaning "wide" or "broad" and ὤψ, ὠπ-, ὀπτ-(ōps, ōp-, opt-) meaning "eye", "face", or "countenance". It could also be from Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down" or "set"... [more]
EVRÓPA (Region) Icelandic
Icelandic form of Europe.
EWROPA (Region) Kazakh
Kazakh form of Europe.
GROZNY (Settlement) Chechen, Russian, English
Derived from Russian грозный (grozniy) meaning "fearsome" or "formidable". It is informally referred as Соьлжа–Гӏала (Solzha Ghala), "the city on the Sunzha River", by the local Chechen people... [more]
ICELAND (Country) English
English form of ÍSLAND.
ILANKAI (Country) Tamil
Tamil form of Sri Lanka.
INDÔNÈSIA (Country) Acehnese
Acehnese form of Indonesia.
INGUSHETIA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from Angusht, which is the name of an ancient village. The Ingush people call themselves the Гӏалгӏай (Ghalghai), a combination of the Ingush words ghala meaning "fortress, town" and ghai meaning "inhabitants, citizens"... [more]
ÍSAFJÖRÐUR (Settlement) Icelandic
Means "ice fjord" or "fjord of ice" in Icelandic. Ísafjörður is a town in Iceland.
ISLAMABAD (Settlement) Urdu, English
Means "city of Islam", a combination of اسلام (Islām) referring to the monotheistic religion and the Persian آباد (ābād) "city, building, habitation". This is the name of the capital city of Pakistan.
ÍSLAND (Country) Icelandic, Faroese, Ancient Scandinavian
Derived from Old Norse íss "ice" and land "land, country".
İSTANBUL (Settlement) Turkish
Turkish form of Istanbul.
ISTANBUL (Settlement) English
Misinterpretation of a Greek phrase "εἰς τὴν Πόλιν" (eis tín pólin) meaning "to the city". It was formerly called Constantinople and Byzantium. Istanbul is the capital city of Turkey.
JAKARTA (Settlement) Indonesian, English
Derived from the Old Javanese word jayakarta meaning "victorious deed", "complete act", or "complete victory". It ultimately comes from Sanskrit, and had several different names such as Sunda Kelapa, Jayakarta, Batavia, and Djakarta... [more]
JOHOR BAHRU (Settlement) Malay, Malaysian, English
Combination of Malay جوهر (johor) meaning "precious stone, gem, gemstone", ultimately from Persian گوهر (gowhar) "jewel, gem, essence" and بهارو (baharu) meaning "new"... [more]
KABARDINO-BALKARIA (Political Subdivision) English
Kabardino-Balkaria is a republic of Russia located in the North Caucasus region.
KABARDINO-BALKARIYA (Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of Kabardino-Balkaria.
KALMYKIA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from the name Kalmyk, denoting the native people who originally inhabited the area. The Mongolian name, Халимаг (Khalimag), means "the people moving away"; ultimately from Mongolian халих (khalikh) meaning "overflow, leakage, seepage, overpour", referring to how the Kalmyk people were originally Mongolians who "leaked away" from their ancestral homeland... [more]
KAMPUCHEA (Country) Khmer, English
Khmer form of Cambodia, also used to refer to the old English name for the country used from 1975-1989.
Derived from qara meaning "black" and qalpaq meaning "hat". Karakalpakstan is an autonomous region in present-day Uzbekistan.
KARELIA (Political Subdivision) English
Combination of Finnish karja meaning "livestock" and the suffix -la denoting place names. The Republic of Karelia is a federal subject in northern Russia, bordering Finland.
KARELIYA (Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of Karelia.
KĀṬHAMĀḌAUṀ (Settlement) Nepali
Original Nepali form of Kathmandu.
KATHMANDU (Settlement) English
Named after the Kasthamandap Temple in Kathmandu, which is derived from Sanskrit काष्ठ (Kāṣṭha) meaning "wood" and मण्डप (Maṇḍap) meaning "covered shelter"; literally means "wood-covered shelter"... [more]
KAZAKSTAN (Country) Kyrgyz
Kyrgyz form of Kazakhstan.
KAZAN (Settlement) Tatar, Russian, English
Meaning disputed, although some sources say that the name of the city is derived from the Volga Bulgar and Tatar word qazan meaning "boiler" or "cauldron". Other sources say that it comes from the name of the Kazanka River or that it was named after the cauldron-shaped hill the city sits atop of... [more]
KHAKASSIA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from the name Khakas, referring to the native Khakas people (a Turkic ethnic group) who originally inhabited the area. The etymological origin of the name Khakas is unknown. Khakassia is a federal subject of Russia, located near the border between Russia and Mongolia.
KKAVKKAZ (Region & Mountain) Lak
Lak form of Caucasus.
KOMI (Political Subdivision) English, Russian, Komi
Derived directly from the name Коми (Komi), referring to the native people of the region. The word Komi is a self-designation of the ethnic group, derived from a Finno-Ugric word for "man, human"... [more]
KOVKAS (Region) Armenian
Armenian form of Caucasus.
KRYM (Region) Russian, Ukrainian
Russian and Ukrainian form of Crimea.
KUALA LUMPUR (Settlement) Malaysian, Malay, English
Means "muddy confluence" in Malay; a combination of کوالا (kuala) meaning "confluence (referring to a point where two rivers or streams meet)" and لومڤور‎ (lumpur) meaning "mud"... [more]
KYRGYZSTAN (Country) Kyrgyz, English
Means "land of the Kyrgyz"; a combination of Kyrgyz—which itself is a mostly thought to be a combination of Old Turkish kırk "forty" and uz "tribes"—and the Persian suffix ستان (-stān) "land, place of", "country"... [more]
LAÂYOUNE (Settlement) French
French variant of Laayoune.
LAAYOUNE (Settlement) English
Derived from Arabic العيون (al-'ayūn) meaning "the (water) springs". Laayoune is the largest city in the disputed region of Western Sahara.
LAOS (Country) English, Croatian
From a word coined by the French when they united the three kingdoms of Laos into the French Indochina, a group of federal colonial territories in Southeast Asia. They pluralized the word ລາວ (Lāo), which refers to the dominant ethnic group the region... [more]
LEBANON (Country) English
From the name of Mount Lebanon, which is ultimately from the Phoenician and Semitic root lbn meaning "white", most likely referring to the snow on the mountains. This is the name of a republic in West Asia and the Middle East and a mountain range.
LIBYA (Country) English
Derived from Arabic ليبيا (Līb(i)yā), denoting Africa or northwest Africa; ultimately from ancient Greek Λιβύη (Libúē). Libya is an African nation in the Maghreb.
MACEDONIA (Country) English
Derived from Greek Μακεδονία (Makedonía), which is the name of a kingdom (and region) named after the Ancient Macedonian people. In turn, their name is derived from ancient Greek μακεδνός (makednós) meaning "tall, taper"... [more]
MAKEDONIJA (Country) Macedonian, Croatian
Original Macedonian and Croatian form of Macedonia.
MAKEDONIYA (Country) Bulgarian, Russian, Ukrainian
Russian, Bulgarian, and Ukrainian form of Macedonia.
MAKHACHKALA (Settlement) Russian, English
Combination of Makhach, the nickname of Dagestani revolter Magomed-Ali Dakhadaev and Kumyk къала (qala) meaning "fortress". In the Kumyk language, it is referred to as Анжикъала (Anzhiqala) meaning "pearl fortress" (анжи (anzhi) "pearl", къала (qala) "fortress")... [more]
MAKHAÇQALA (Settlement) Avar
Avar form of Makhachkala.
MAKKAH (Settlement) Arabic
Original Arabic form of Mecca.
MALAYSIA (Country) Malay, Malaysian, English
Combination of Malay Malay or Malaya and the Ancient Greek suffix -ία (-ía). The word Malay is derived from melayu or malaya, which in turn is possibly derived from Tamil மலை (malai) (from Sanskrit मलै (malai)) meaning "mountain, hill" and Sanskrit उर् (ur) "town, city, land"... [more]
MALMÖ (Settlement) Swedish
Newer form of Malmhaug meaning "gravel pile" or "ore hill". Malmö is the third largest city in Sweden.
MAURITANIA (Country) English
Derived from Latin Maurītānia, itself from Maurus meaning "Moor" (referring to the Moors, a group of Muslims who historically inhabited the Maghreb in Northern Africa), ultimately from Greek μαυρός (maurós) meaning "dark"... [more]
MAURITANIE (Country) French
French form of Mauritania.
MAYKOP (Settlement) Russian, English
Means "the valley of apple trees" in Adyghe. Maykop is the capital city of the Russian Republic of Adygea located in the Caucasus.
MECCA (Settlement) English
Possibly from Phoenician maqaq meaning "ruined" or Arabic mahrab meaning "sanctuary". The official name of the city is مكة المكرمة (Makkah al-Mukarramah / Makkatu l-Mukarramah) meaning "Mecca the Honored" or "The Holy City of Mecca"... [more]
MEDAN (Settlement) Indonesian, English
Meaning uncertain. According to the diary of a Portuguese merchant, the name is derived from Tamil மைதானம் (Maidhāṉam) meaning "ground" (or Hindi मैदान (Maidan)), adopted from Malay... [more]
MONGOL ULS (Country) Mongolian
Mongolian form of Mongolia.
MORDOVIA (Political Subdivision) English
Refers to the Mordvins, the native ethnic group inhabiting the area. The name Mordvin itself is a self designation adopted by the people, believed to be derived frm Scythian mard meaning "man"... [more]
MOSCOW (Settlement) English
Transliteration of Russian Москва (Moskva) meaning "the city by the Moskva River".
MOSKVA (Settlement) Russian
Original Russian form of Moscow, which refers to the city as well as the Moskva River.
MYEQUAPE (Settlement) Circassian
Original Adyghe form of Maykop.
NAGORNO-KARABAKH (Political Subdivision) English
Combination of Russian нагорный (nagorniy) "highland" and Karabakh, derived from Turkish kara "black" and Persian باغ (bāgh) "garden". Nagorno-Karabakh is a disputed region in the Caucasus and internationally recognized as a part of Azerbaijan.
NEFTEKAMA (Settlement) Bashkir
Bashkir form of Neftekamsk.
NEFTEKAMSK (Settlement) Russian, English
Derived from Russian нефть (neft') meaning "oil, petroleum" and the name of the Kama River. Neftekamsk is a city in Russia and the Republic of Bashkortostan.
NOUAKCHOTT (Settlement) English
Derived from Berber Nawākšūṭ meaning "place of the winds". Nouakchott is the capital and largest city of Mauritania.
NOVAYA ZEMLYA (Island) Russian
From Russian новий (noviy) meaning "new" and земля (zemlya) meaning "land". Novaya Zemlya is an island in northern Russia.
NOXÇIYÇÖ (Political Subdivision) Chechen
Chechen original form of Chechnya.
ÖFÖ (Settlement) Bashkir
Bashkir form of Ufa.
ORAN (Settlement) English
Derived from Berber hr meaning "lion", believed to be bestowed to the city when lions were spotted in 900 BC. Oran is a port city in northwest Algeria and the second largest city after Algiers.
ORUSIYA (Country) Kyrgyz
Kyrgyz form of Russia.
ÖZBEKSTAN (Country) Kazakh, Kyrgyz
Kazakh and Kyrgyz form of Uzbekistan.
PARIAMAN (Settlement) Indonesian, English
Means "safe area" in Indonesian. Pariaman is a costal city on the island of Sumatra in Indonesia.
PAVLODAR (Settlement) Kazakh, Russian, English
Derived from the name of Pavel Alexandrovich, a former Grand Duke of Russia. The city was originally named Koryakovsky before Pavel's birth. Pavlodar is a northeastern city in Kazakhstan.
PHNOM PENH (Settlement) Khmer, English
Means "Penh's hill" in Khmer, a combination of ភ្នំ (pnum) "hill, mountain" and ពេញ (bpeuñ) meaning "full", but referring to Lady Penh, a wealthy woman in Cambodian legend who built a new temple for the Buddha after a flood (today believed to be the temple of Wat Phnom)... [more]
PLOVDIV (Settlement) Bulgarian, English
"Plovdiv" is the British English form of the city's original Greek name: Philippopolis, which means "the city of Phillip". It is also the Bulgarian evolution of one of the city's names: Pulpudeva... [more]
PONDICHERRY (Political Subdivision & Settlement) English
Derived from Tamil புதுச்சேரி (putuccēri) meaning "new town". Pondicherry (Puducherry) is the capital city of an Indian state of the same name.
PUNJAB (Political Subdivision & Region) English, German, Malay, Italian, Norwegian, Welsh, Swahili, Dutch, Scots
From Punjabi پنجاب (Paṉjāb) or ਪੰਜਾਬ (Pañjāb) both meaning "land of five waters"; ultimately from Persian پنج (panj) "five" combined with آب (âb) "water"... [more]
QAFQAZ (Region & Mountain) Azerbaijani, Persian
Azerbaijani and Persian form of Caucasus.
QARAQALPAQSTAN (Region) Karakalpak
Karakalpak original form of Karakalpakstan.
QAZ̧AĞSTAN (Country) Bashkir
Bashkir form of Kazakhstan.
QAZOQISTON (Country) Tajik
Tajik form of Kazakhstan.
QIRG'IZISTON (Country) Uzbek
Uzbek form of Kyrgyzstan.
QIRĞIZISTON (Country) Tajik
Tajik form of Kyrgyzstan.
Uzbek form of Karakalpakstan.
QOZOG'ISTON (Country) Uzbek
Uzbek form of Kazakhstan.
QYRĞYZSTAN (Country) Kazakh
Kazakh form of Kyrgyzstan.
RABAT (Settlement) English
Derived from Arabic الرِّبَاط‎‎ (ar-ribāṭ), which ultimately comes from رباط (rabṭ) meaning "binding, fastening, tying". Rabat is the capital city of Morocco and its seventh largest city.
RASIJA (Country) Belarusian
Belarusian form of Russia.
RESEY (Country) Kazakh
Kazakh form of Russia.
RESPUBLIKA SAKHA (Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of the Sakha Republic.
REYKJAVÍK (Settlement) Icelandic
Means "bay of smokes", from Old Norse reykir, plural of reykr “smoke” and vík "bay". Steam from hot springs in the region is said to have inspired Reykjavík's name.
RIYADH (Settlement) Arabic
Riyadh translates to "gardens" and is the capital and largest city of Saudi Arabia. It is also the capital of Riyadh Province, and belongs to the historical regions of Najd and Al-Yamama.
SAHARA (Region & Political Subdivision) Arabic, English
Derived directly from Arabic ‏صحارى‎ (ṣaḥārā), the plural form of صحراء (ṣaḥrāʾ) meaning "desert". The Sahara Desert in Northern Africa is the largest hot desert and third largest desert in the world... [more]
SAINT PETERSBURG (Settlement) English
Derived from German Sankt Petersburg meaning "Saint Peter's city", a reference to Saint Peter, a Disciple of Jesus Christ or Peter the Great, a Russian tsar. Saint Petersburg is a city in Russia and the former capital of the country... [more]
SAKHA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from Turkic saqa, saha meaning "cue" or "bat". The Sakha Republic (or Yakutia) is a federal subject in the Russian Far East.
SAKHALIN (Island) Russian, English
Derived from Manchu sahaliyan meaning "black". A misconception of the original Manchu word led to the present name. "Sahaliyan Ula" is also the Manchu name for the Amur River. Sakhalin Island is an island in the Far East of Russia, right above Japan.
SAKHA ÖRÖSPÜÜBÜLÜKETE (Political Subdivision) Yakut
Original Yakut form of the Sakha Republic.
SANKT PETERBURG (Settlement) Russian
Russian form of Saint Petersburg.
SAUDI ARABIA (Country) English
The name of the Country in the Middle East. Saudi Arabia is a desert country encompassing most of the Arabian Peninsula, with Red Sea and Persian (Arabian) Gulf coastlines. Known as the birthplace of Islam, it’s home to the religion’s 2 most sacred mosques: Masjid al-Haram, in Mecca, destination of the annual Hajj pilgrimage, and Medina’s Masjid an-Nabawi, burial site of the prophet Muhammad... [more]
SEOUL (Settlement) Korean, English
Derived from the Korean word seo'ul meaning "capital city", which is thought to be from the word 서라벌 (Seorabeol) which is referring to the old capital of Silla, Gyeongju. The city was formerly called: Wirye-seong, Hanju, Namgyeong, Hanseong, Hanyang, and Gyeongsyeong... [more]
SERBIA (Country) English
Derived from Serbo-Croatian srbi and ultimately derived from Proto-Slavic sьrbъ meaning "ally", "Serb", or "Sorb". Serbia is a South Slavic nation in southeastern Europe.
SHINJANG (Region) Uyghur
Uyghur form of Xinjiang.
SHYMKENT (Settlement) Kazakh, Russian, English
Derived frim Turkic chim, shym meaning "turf, meadow" and kent meaning "city". The name means "green city". Shymkent is a city in Kazakhstan and was formerly named Chimkent.
SIBERIA (Region) English
Meaning uncertain. One theory suggests its derivation from Siberian Tatar Sib Ir meaning "sleeping land", while another suggests an origin from the ethonym Sirtya, Syopyr, an ethnic group which spoke a language that evolved into the Ugric languages... [more]
SIERRA LEONE (Country) English
The name of the Country in West Africa. Sierra Leone is a country in West Africa, on the Atlantic Ocean. It’s known for the white-sand beaches lining the Freetown Peninsula. The capital city, Freetown, commemorates the nation’s slave-trade history with the Cotton Tree landmark and King’s Yard Gate... [more]
SINDH (Political Subdivision & Region) Urdu, Sindhi, English
From Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the Indus River; ultimately from the Sanskrit सिन्धु (síndhu) meaning "river, stream". This is the name of a province in southeastern Pakistan, the ancestral home of the Sindhi people.
SINGAPORE (Country) English
Derived from Malay singapura which ultimately comes from Sanskrit सिंहपुर (Siṃhapura) meaning "lion city", a combination of सिंह ‎(siṃhá) meaning "lion" and पुर ‎(pura) meaning "city, town"... [more]
SINGAPUR (Country, Settlement & Island) Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Mongolian, Russian, Tajik, Uzbek, Bulgarian, Croatian
Form of Singapore.
SINGAPURA (Country) Malay, Indonesian
Malay and Indonesian form of Singapore.
SINHAPUR (Country & Island) Belarusian, Ukrainian
Belarusian and Ukrainian form of Singapore.
SMARA (Settlement) English
Meaning unknown. Smara is a Moroccan-controlled city in the disputed Western Sahara.
SOFIYA (Settlement) Bulgarian
Original Bulgarian form of Sofia.
SOLZHA-GHALA (Settlement) Chechen
Local and informal Chechen name for Grozny, meaning "the city on the Sunzha River".
SORTOBE (Settlement) Kazakh, Russian, English
Meaning unknown. Sortobe is a small settlement located near the border between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. The population consists mostly of Dungans, an ethnic group from China.
SRBIJA (Country) Serbian, Croatian
Serbian and Croatian form of Serbia.
SRI JAYAWARDENEPURA KOTTE (Settlement) Sinhalese, English
Means "the blessed fortress city of growing victory" or "fortified city of victory" in Sinhalese. This is the name of the capital city of Sri Lanka.
SRI LANKA (Country) English
From Sinhalese ශ්‍රී ලංකාව (ś‍rī laṁkāva) which is ultimately from Sanskrit श्री (śrī) "holy, splendid, radiant, beautifying, adorning" and लङ्का (laṅkā) "island"... [more]
ŞYMKENT (Settlement) Kazakh
Kazakh variant of Shymkent.
TADZHIKISTAN (Country) Russian
Russian form of Tajikistan.
TAJIKISTAN (Country) English
Means "land of the Tajiks"; a combination of Persian tāži—a name for the Arab enemies of the Persian people or the name of a pre-Islamic tribe—which is thought to be from the name of the Arabic tribe طائی (ṭāʼī); also used to denote a Persian who converted to Islam, thus a person who became an "Arab" and the Persian suffix ـستان (-stān) "land, place of", "country".... [more]
TANGIER (Settlement) English
Meaning uncertain, though it is said to be derived from the name Tingis, the daughter of the Titan Atlas in Greek mythology. Another theory suggests an origin from Semitic tigisis meaning "harbour"... [more]
TASHKENT (Settlement) English, Russian
Derived from Turkic tash meaning "stone" and kent meaning "city"; literally means "stone city". Tashkent is the capital of the Central Asian country of Uzbekistan.
TATARSTAN (Political Subdivision) Tatar, Russian, English
Means "land of the Tatars"; a combination of Tatar—most likely created in the nomadic Tatar confederation and transmitted into Latin, English, French, etc… from Persian and Turkish tātār "mounted messenger" and the Persian suffix ـستان (-stān) "place, land of", "country".Tatarstan is a federal subject of Russia.
TÄZHIKSTAN (Country) Kazakh
Kazakh form of Tajikistan.
TBILISI (Settlement) Georgian, English
Derived from Georgian ტფილი (tipili) and Old Georgian ტფილისი (ṭpilisi) meaning "warm". Tbilisi is the capital of the nation of Georgia in the Caucasus.
TCHÉTCHÉNIE (Political Subdivision) French
French form of Chechnya.
THESSALONIKI (Settlement) English, Greek
The city's name derives from the Greek words Θεσσαλός (Thessalós) referring to the region of Thessaly and νῑ́κη (nī́kē) "victory, success"; literally translating to "Thessalian victory"... [more]
TOÇIKISTON (Country) Tajik
Tajik form of Tajikistan.
TOJIKISTON (Country) Uzbek
Uzbek form of Tajikistan.
TOSHKENT (Settlement) Uzbek
Uzbek form of Tashkent.
TRIPOLI (Settlement) English
Derived from Italian Tripoli, which is from Latin Tripolis, ultimately from Ancient Greek Τρίπολις ‎(Trípolis) meaning "three cities"; a combination of τρι- (tri-) meaning "three" and πόλις (pólis) meaning "city"... [more]
TUNIS (Settlement & Country) English, Arabic, Croatian, Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek, Tajik, Armenian
Derived from the name تُونِس (tūnis), of disputed meaning. One theory suggests Berber origin from the Tamazight root ⵜⵏⵙ (tns) meaning "to lay down" or "encampment" or ens meaning "to lie down, to pass the night", Others state that the name is from Tanith, the name of a Phoenician goddess, or from Tynes, the name of an ancient city... [more]
TUNISIA (Country) English, Italian, Galician
Derived from the name تُونِس (tūnis), the name of the capital city of Tunisia (see Tunis, of disputed meaning. One theory suggests Berber origin from the Tamazight root ⵜⵏⵙ (tns) meaning "to lay down" or "encampment" or ens meaning "to lie down, to pass the night", Others state that the name is from Tanith, the name of a Phoenician goddess, or from Tynes, the name of an ancient city... [more]
TUNISIE (Country) French
French form of Tunisia.
TÜRKMENISTAN (Country) Turkmen
Original Turkmen form of Turkmenistan.
TURKMENISTAN (Country) English, Croatian
Means "land of the Turkmens"; a combination of Turkmen Türkmen, which is derived from Turkish Türk "Turk" and Sogdian -myn, -men "resembling, like" (in all meaning "resembling a Turk, like a Turk, co-Turk") and the Persian suffix ـستان (-stān) "land, place of", "country"... [more]
TURTSIYA (Country) Russian
Russian form of Turkey.
TUVA (Political Subdivision) English
Derived from the name Tuvan, referring to the native ethnic group of the region. The word Tuvan itself has an unknown etymological origin and meaning. The Tuva Republic is a federal subject of Russia located in southern Siberia and bordering Mongolia.
TYVA (Political Subdivision) Russian, Tuvan
Russian and Tuvan form of Tuva.
UDMURTIA (Political Subdivision) English
From the name Udmurt, denoting the native ethnic group that originally inhabited the area. The word Udmurt is most likely derived from *odo-mort meaning "meadow people"; a combination of Permic *od(o) "meadow, glade, turf, greenery" and murt meaning "man--ultimately deriving from Scythian *mertä, *martiya meaning "person, man"... [more]
UFA (Settlement) Russian, English
Meaning unknown. It could possibly be derived from Turkic ufak meaning "small", uba meaning "hill" (possibly a reference to a hill it sits atop of), up meaning "water" in Persian, or from the name of Bashkir tribe, upai... [more]
UKRAINA (Country) Ukrainian, Russian
Ukrainian and Russian form of Ukraine.
UKRAINE (Country) English
The meaning of the name is not fully certain, but different sources claim that it means "borderland", "homeland", "region", or "country". Before becoming an independent country, it was referred to as "the Ukraine", but the formal name for the nation is now "Ukraine".
ULAANBAATAR (Settlement) Mongolian, English
Derived from Mongolian улаан (ulaan) meaning "red" and баатар (baatar) meaning "hero"; literally means "red hero". Ulaanbaatar is Mongolia's capital and largest city.
ULAAN ÜDE (Settlement) Buryat
Buryat form of Ulan-Ude.
ULAN-UDE (Settlement) Russian, English
Means "red Uda" in Buryat, referring to communism (red) and the Uda River. It was formerly called Udinskoye, Udinsk, and Verkhneudinsk. Ulan-Ude is a city in Russia and the capital of the Russian federal subject of Buryatia.
ÜRÜMQI (Settlement) Uyghur
Derived from the Oriat word for "beautiful pasture". Ürümqi is the capital city of the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in western China.
ŪZBEKISTON (Country) Tajik
Tajik form of Uzbekistan.
VIENTIANE (Settlement) English, French
From Lao ວຽງຈັນ (Wīang Chan) meaning "city of sandalwood"; composed of Lao ວຽງ (wīang) "city, town" and ຈັນ (chan) "sandalwood" as well as "moon, Monday"... [more]
VLADIKAVKAZ (Settlement) English, Russian
Means "ruler of the Caucasus", from the Slavic element vladeti meaning "to rule, to control" and the Russian word Кавказ (Kavkaz) meaning "Caucasus". Vladikavkaz is the capital city of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania.
VOLGA (River) English, Russian
English and Russian name for the largest river in Europe. The Old Mari name of the river is Volgydo, which means "bright". The name volgydo is cognate to Finno-Ugric valkea meaning "white" or "bright"... [more]
XINJIANG (Political Subdivision & Region) Chinese, English
Means "new frontier"; derived from Chinese 新 (xīn) meaning "new" and 疆 (jiāng) meaning "frontier". Xinjiang, officially the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an area in western China and home to Chinese ethnic minorities such as Uyghurs, Huis, etc...
YAIYQ (River) Bashkir
Bashkir form of Ural (the Ural River).
YAKUTIA (Political Subdivision) English
Variant name for the Sakha Republic. The name is derived from Turkic zhaqut meaning "precious stone" or "ruby".
YAKUTIYA (Political Subdivision) Russian
Russian form of Yakutia.
YEREVAN (Settlement) Armenian, English
Meaning disputed. It could be derived from the name of an Armenian king named Yerevand (Orontes) IV. It could also be derived from the name of a Urartian fortress called Էրեբունի (Erebuni), and evolved into "Yerevan" over time (Erebuni to Erevani to Erevan to Yerevan)... [more]
YOSHKAR-OLA (Settlement) English, Russian, Mari
Means "red city" in Mari. The city was formerly named Tsaryovokokshaysk and Krasnokokshaysk. Yoshkar-Ola is a city in Russia and the capital city of the Russian republic of Mari El.
ZANZIBAR (Island) English
Means "black-skinned coast", from the Arabic زنجبار (Zanjibār) which is from Persian زنگبار (zangebâr), a combination of Persian زنگی (zangi) "black, dark-skinned" and بار (bār) "bank, shore, coast"... [more]
ZHAIYQ (River) Kazakh
Kazakh form of Ural (Ural River).