ANGOLA (Country) Portuguese, English, Spanish, French, Italian, German, Dutch, Polish, Croatian, Serbian
Portuguese form of Ngola
, the royal title of the kings of Ndongo, an African kingdom that was conquered by the Portuguese in the 17th-century. It was a Portuguese colony until 1975, when it became an independent country.
ARGENTINA (Country) Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Czech, Croatian, Serbian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
From Latin argentinus
, a derivative of argentum
meaning "silver". This is the name of a country in South America, arising from a Latinized form of Spanish Río de la Plata
meaning "river of silver".
BELIZE (Country & River) English, Italian, Portuguese, German, Dutch
From Spanish Belice
, earlier Balis
, from the name of the Belize River, which may itself be from Mayan beliz
meaning "muddy water"
. This is the name of a country on the Atlantic coast of Central America.
CHAVES (Settlement) Portuguese, Spanish
From the Roman name FLAVIUS
. This is the name of a Portuguese city, which was originally named for the Roman emperor Vespasian, whose family name was Flavius.
CONGO (River & Country) English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Danish
, of uncertain origin, the name of a kingdom in central Africa that existed from the 14th to 19th century. The Congo River (also called the Zaire
River) was named after the kingdom. Belgian and French colonies were established in the 19th century, named after the river, which eventually led to two African countries, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) and the Republic of the Congo.
FÁTIMA (Settlement) Portuguese
Derived from the Arabic feminine name FATIMAH
, apparently after a Moorish princess who converted to Christianity during the Reconquista. This is the name of a town in Portugal, which became an important Christian pilgrimage center after 1917 when three local children reported witnessing repeated apparitions of the Virgin Mary.
FIJI (Country) English, Portuguese, Indian, Hindi
English form of Fijian Viti
, of unknown meaning, the name of the largest island (called Viti Levu
meaning "great Viti") of the archipelago. The change from Viti
is reportedly explained by the fact that the British (on an 18th-century expedition of James Cook) first heard it pronounced this way by the neighbouring Tongans.
ISRAEL (Country) English, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Biblical, Biblical Greek
From the name of the Old Testament hero Jacob, who was also called ISRAEL
. This was the name of an ancient kingdom that existed until the 8th century BC. The modern country of Israel is named for it.
MÉXICO (Country & Settlement) Spanish, Portuguese, Finnish, Estonian, Slovene
Spanish (and Portuguese) form of MEXICO
. This native spelling is also used in several other languages to refer to the capital city, while the name of the country has other forms.
MYANMAR (Country) English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, German, French, Indian, Hindi
From Burmese မြန်မာ (Myanma)
, the name of the main Burmese ethnic group (also called the Bamar), which is of unknown origin. This is the name of a country in southeastern Asia. It was formerly called Burma
, derived from a variant of this term.
NEPAL (Country) Nepali, Indian, Hindi, English, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Sanskrit
From Sanskrit नेपाल (Nepal)
, of unknown meaning. This is the name of a landlocked country in south Asia.
PERU (Country) English, Portuguese, German, Dutch
From Spanish Perú
, older Birú
, which was possibly derived from the name of a chieftain (who nevertheless resided in modern-day Panama).
PORTUGAL (Country) Portuguese, English, French, Spanish, Galician, Catalan, German, Dutch, Luxembourgish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Estonian, Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian
, which was derived from PORTUS CALE
, the old name of the city of Porto. The name of the city was later applied to the entire country.
SAMARRA (Settlement) Arabic, English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French, German
This is the name of a city in Iraq, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century. It was possibly built at the site of the ancient Assyrian city of Surmarrati
, which is of uncertain meaning.
SANTANA (Settlement) Portuguese
The name of several places in the Portuguese-speaking world, in honour of Saint ANNA
SANTIAGO (Settlement) Spanish, Portuguese
This is the name of several cities in Spain and Portugal, so named for Saint JAMES
(see the given name SANTIAGO
for more information). It is also used for many other cities in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking worlds, notably the capital city of Chile.
SENEGAL (River & Country) Portuguese, English, Spanish, Italian, German, Croatian, Serbian
From Portuguese, possibly from the name of the Berber Zenaga people of northern Senegal. This is the name of a river in western Africa, and a country named after it. It gained independence from France in 1960.
SOUSA (River) Portuguese
Possibly derived from Latin salsus "salty"
or saxa "rocks"
, but likely of pre-Latin origin. This is the name of a river in Portugal.
ZAIRE (River & Country) Portuguese, English
Older name of the Congo
River, said to be derived via Portuguese from Kikongo nzadi o nzere
meaning "river swallowing rivers"
. This was also the former name of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.