ALBANIA(Region & Country)Late Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
Medieval Latin name for the region which was once occupied by the Illyrian tribe called Albanoi. This is the name of a country in the Balkans.
AMERICA(Region & Country)English, Italian, Romanian, Late Roman
From the name of the explorer AMERIGO
Vespucci (1451-1512). This is the name of two continents (North and South America). As well, it is commonly used to refer to the United States of America.
Derived from Latin aqua
meaning "water". This is the name of a town in Italy.
ARMENIA(Country)English, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Greek, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek, Ancient Persian
From Greek Αρμενια (Armenia)
, which was from Old Persian Armina
, which is itself probably of Armenia origin. This is the name of a country in the Caucasus region, called Hayastan
ASSISI(Settlement)Italian, English, German
From Latin Asisium
, which is of unknown, possibly pre-Latin, origin. This is the name of a city in central Italy.
AUSTRALIA(Region & Country)English, Italian, Spanish
Derived from Latin australis
meaning "southern". It was formally adopted as the name of the continent (and later country) by the British administrators of the region in 1824.
From Latin Badalocum
meaning "watch place". This is the name of an Italian town, now a district of Milan.
From Latin Bergomum
, possibly from a Celtic word meaning "mountain". This is the name of a city in northern Italy.
BOLOGNA(Settlement)Italian, English, German
From Latin Bononia
, possibly derived from a Celtic word meaning "settlement". This is the name of a city in northern italy.
BULGARIA(Country)Late Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
From the name of the Turkic tribe of the Bulgars, possibly from a Turkic root meaning "mixed". This is the name of a country in southeastern Europe.
From Late Latin bustum
meaning "ox pasture". This is the name of several towns in Spain and Italy.
From Latin Caiatia
, a derivative of the given name CAIUS
. This is the name of a city near Naples.
From Latin Calvianum
, a derivative of the cognomen CALVUS
. This is the name of a city near Naples.
CANADA(Country)English, French, Italian, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian
Derived from the Iroquoian word kanata
meaning "village". This word was used by Native Americans to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to Stadacona. Cartier used the word to refer to the region.
COLUMBIA(Region, Settlement, Political Subdivision & River)English, Italian, Spanish
Named after the explorer Christopher Columbus, called Cristoforo Colombo
in Italian (see the surname COLOMBO
). This is the name of several cities in the Americas (including the District of Columbia, also called Washington D.C.), and a river in Canada and the United States. It is also a name used historically to refer to the New World.
CONGO(River & Country)English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Danish
, of uncertain origin, the name of a kingdom in central Africa that existed from the 14th to 19th century. The Congo River (also called the Zaire
River) was named after the kingdom. Belgian and French colonies were established in the 19th century, named after the river, which eventually led to two African countries, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) and the Republic of the Congo.
Meaning uncertain, possibly from a Lombardic word meaning "hill". This is the name of a city in Cremona
(to which the name is unrelated) in northern Italy
CREMONA(Settlement & Political Subdivision)Italian
Probably from the name of the Celtic tribe the Cenomani, or possibly from a pre-Latin word meaning "stone". This is the name of a city and province in northern Italy
FRIULI(Region)Italian, English, Spanish
From the name of the Roman town of Forum Iulii (now called Cividale del Friuli
) meaning "forum of Julius". This is the name of a region in northeast Italy.
GHANA(Country)English, French, German, Italian, Spanish
From the name of the Ghana Empire, which was located in the southwestern Sahara and existed up to the 13th century. Ghana
, meaning "warrior" in Mande, was actually the title of the rulers, while the empire itself was more properly known as Awkar
. In 1957 this was adopted as the name of the newly independent country of Ghana, formerly the British colony Gold Coast, despite the fact that the country lies outside the empire's territory.
GUINEA(Region, Country & Island)English, Italian, Spanish, German
From Portuguese Guiné
, which is of unknown meaning, possibly of Berber origin. This name was used by the Portuguese to refer to a portion of western Africa. It was also applied by westerners to the island of New Guinea starting in the 16th century. It is now the name or part of the name of the countries of Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea and Papua New Guinea.
IRAN(Country)Persian, Arabic, English, French, German, Italian, Croatian, Serbian
Derived from Middle Persian Eran
, related to Old Iranian Arya
meaning "Iranian, Aryan". This is the name of a country in western Asia, formerly called Persia
in the West.
From Latin Lauretum
meaning "laurel grove". This is the name of a town in eastern Italy.
NEPAL(Country)Nepali, Indian, Hindi, English, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Sanskrit
From Sanskrit नेपाल (Nepal)
, of unknown meaning. This is the name of a landlocked country in south Asia.
NIGER(River & Country)English, French, Italian, German, Dutch, Swedish, Croatian, Serbian, Late Roman
Meaning unknown, possibly of Berber origin, though influenced by Latin niger
"black". This is the name of a river in western Africa (and a country which is named after it).
NIGERIA(Country)English, French, Italian, Spanish, German
From the name of the NIGER
River, applied in the 19th century to the British colonial territory in western Africa. It continued to be used after the territory became an independent country in 1960.
PAKISTAN(Country)Urdu, Punjabi, English, Italian, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Polish, Slovak, Russian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian
From Persian پاک (pak)
meaning "pure" and the suffix ستان (stan)
meaning "land of". The name was coined in 1933 by the Pakistani nationalist Choudhry Rahmat Ali who justified it as an acronym of Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir and Sindh, plus the final three letters of Baluchistan.
PERSIA(Country)Ancient Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
Latin form of Greek Περσις (Persis)
, from Old Persian Parsa
. This is the name used in the West for a region in western Asia, as well as several empires which were based there, including the Achaemenid Empire, Parthian Empire, and Sasanian Empire. This was also the Western name for the country of Iran until 1935, when the king requested that the native name Iran
be used instead.
Means unknown, probably of Etruscan origin. This is the name of a city in Italy.
ROMAGNA(Region & Political Subdivision)Italian, English, German
From Latin ROMANIA
, in this case the name of a historic region on the Adriatic coast of Italy (part of the modern administrative region of Emilia-Romagna).
ROMANIA(Country & Region)English, Italian, Ancient Roman
From Latin meaning "land of the Romans" (see ROME
). This is the name of a country in eastern Europe, so named in the 16th century because of its historic and linguistic connections to the Roman Empire.... [more]
SAMARRA(Settlement)Arabic, English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French, German
This is the name of a city in Iraq, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century. It was possibly built at the site of the ancient Assyrian city of Surmarrati
, which is of uncertain meaning.
Meaning uncertain, perhaps of Arabic origin. This is the name of a town on Sicily.
SUDAN(Country)English, Arabic, German, Italian
From Arabic سُود (sud)
meaning "black", referring to the darker skin of the inhabitants. This is the name of a country in Africa. In Arabic it is properly written with the definite article: السُودان (al-Sudan)
Derived from Latin Tridentum
meaning "three teeth", a reference to three surrounding hills. This is the name of a city in Trentino, Italy.
VALENCIA(Settlement & Region)Spanish, Italian, English, German
The name of a city and surrounding region in eastern Spain, originally named in Latin Valentia (Edetanorum)
meaning "strength (of the Edetani people)", and derived from Latin valentius
"strength, vigour", from valens
"strong, vigourous". Besides the city in Spain, this is also the name of a city in Venezuala.