AMERIKA (Region & Country) German, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Luxembourgish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Russian, Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Hungarian, Albanian, Georgian, Uzbek
Form of AMERICA
, used to refer to the continents and sometimes to the United States of America.
ANTWERPEN (Settlement) Dutch, German, Luxembourgish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Icelandic, Finnish, Hungarian, Slovene, Croatian, Bosnian
Dutch form of ANTWERP
, as well as the form in several other languages.
ARGENTINA (Country) Spanish, English, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Czech, Croatian, Serbian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish
From Latin argentinus
, a derivative of argentum
meaning "silver". This is the name of a country in South America, arising from a Latinized form of Spanish Río de la Plata
meaning "river of silver".
ARMENIA (Country) English, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Greek, Norwegian, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek, Ancient Persian
From Greek Αρμενια (Armenia)
, which was from Old Persian Armina
, which is itself probably of Armenia origin. This is the name of a country in the Caucasus region, called Hayastan
CANADA (Country) English, French, Italian, Dutch, Danish, Norwegian
Derived from the Iroquoian word kanata
. This word was used by Native Americans to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to Stadacona. Cartier used the word to refer to the region.
ENGLAND (Country) English, German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian
From Old English Englaland
meaning "land of the Angles"
, the Angles being one of the Germanic tribes that settled in the area in the post-Roman period.
GEORGIA (2) (Political Subdivision & Country) English, Spanish, Italian, German, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish, Dutch
From the given name GEORGE
, named in honour of the British king George II. This was the name of an American colony, later a state.
INDONESIA (Country) Indonesian, Malay, Buginese, Minangkabau, English, Italian, Spanish, Norwegian, Finnish, Late Greek
From Greek Ινδος (Indos)
, referring to the INDUS
, combined with νησος (nesos)
meaning "island". This name has been used since the 18th century by colonial powers to refer to the Indonesian archipelago and since 1945 to refer to the independent nation.
IRAK (Country) German, French, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish, Hungarian, Polish, Russian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovak
German, French, Spanish, Dutch, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Finnish, Hungarian, Polish, Russian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian and Slovak form of IRAQ
ISRAEL (Country) English, Spanish, Portuguese, Romanian, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Biblical, Biblical Greek
From the name of the Old Testament hero Jacob, who was also called ISRAEL
. This was the name of an ancient kingdom that existed until the 8th century BC. The modern country of Israel is named for it.
JERUSALEM (Settlement) English, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Luxembourgish, Southern African, Afrikaans, Catalan, Bosnian, Biblical
From Hebrew יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (Yerushalayim)
, from an earlier Canaanite form like Urushalim
, probably meaning "established by (the god) SHALIM"
. This is the name of a city in Israel and Palestine. Originally a Canaanite city, it was conquered by the Israelites under King David
at the beginning of the 10th century BC. It is now regarded as a holy city by Jews, Christians and Muslims.
JORDAN (River & Country) English, Danish, Norwegian, Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian, Macedonian, German, Swedish, Finnish, Estonian, Polish, Slovene, Biblical
River that flows between the countries of Jordan and Israel. The river's name in Hebrew is יַרְדֵן (Yarden)
, and it is derived from יָרַד (yarad)
or "flow down"
. The river has lent its name to the country to the east (in German, Swedish, Finnish, Estonian, Polish and Slovene this is only the name of the river, with the name of the country taking a different form).
KURDISTAN (Region) Kurdish, Arabic, English, French, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Russian
From Kurdish کوردستان
(Kurdistan), from the Persian ethnic name کرد (Kord)
meaning "Kurd" combined with the Persian suffix ستان (stan)
meaning "land of". This is the name of the region in the midst of Iran, Iraq and Turkey that is primarily inhabited by the Kurdish people.
LIBERIA (Country) English, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Italian, Spanish, Polish
Derived from Latin liber
. This was the name of a colony established in western Africa by free African Americans in the 1820s. It declared its independence in 1847, and was one of only two independent countries in Africa in the early 20th century (along with Ethiopia
MARRAKECH (Settlement) French, Italian, Spanish, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Croatian
French, Italian, Spanish, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish and Croatian form of مرّاكش
MEXICO (Country & Settlement) English, French, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian
From Spanish México
, itself derived from Nahuatl Mehxico
. There are many theories regarding the ultimate origin, including Nahuatl metztli
meaning "moon" combined with xictli
meaning "navel". This is the name of a country in North America, as well as its capital city (the country is named after the city). In French and Swedish Mexico
is the name of the capital city, while the country is called Mexique
in French and Mexiko
PAKISTAN (Country) Urdu, Punjabi, English, Italian, French, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Polish, Slovak, Russian, Bulgarian, Croatian, Serbian
From Persian پاک (pak)
meaning "pure" and the suffix ستان (stan)
meaning "land of". The name was coined in 1933 by the Pakistani nationalist Choudhry Rahmat Ali who justified it as an acronym of Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir and Sindh, plus the final three letters of Baluchistan.
PORTUGAL (Country) Portuguese, English, French, Spanish, Galician, Catalan, German, Dutch, Luxembourgish, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Estonian, Croatian, Serbian, Bosnian
, which was derived from PORTUS CALE
, the old name of the city of Porto. The name of the city was later applied to the entire country.
SLOVAKIA (Country) English, Norwegian, Finnish
, the Slovak form of medieval Slavic slovene
, referring to the tribe of the Slavs. This is the name of a country in central Europe.
SOMALIA (Country) English, Italian, Spanish, German, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Polish
From the ethnic name Somali
, of uncertain meaning. The Somali people connect it to their mythical ancestor Samaale
. Italian and British colonists applied the ethnic name to the Horn of Africa region in the 19th century. It became an independent country in 1960.
SYRIA (Country & Region) English, Polish, Norwegian, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek
From Greek Συρια (Syria)
, which was probably a variant of ASSYRIA
, used in an expanded sense to refer to the northern Levant. This was the name of a province of the Roman Empire. It is now the name of a country in western Asia, having gained independence from the Ottoman Empire early in the 20th century.
TEHERAN (Settlement) German, Dutch, Italian, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Finnish, Polish, Romanian, Croatian, Serbian
Form of TEHRAN
in several languages.
ZEALAND (Country) English, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish
From Dutch Zeeland
, from Middle Dutch Seelant
, derived from see
"sea" and lant
"land". This is the name of a province in the western Netherlands (now typically called Zeeland
in many languages). It is also borne by the country of New Zealand in the southern Pacific, which was named by the Dutch in the 17th century.