ALBANIA(Region & Country)Late Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
Medieval Latin name for the region which was once occupied by the Illyrian tribe called Albanoi. This is the name of a country in the Balkans.
ARMENIA(Country)English, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, Greek, Ancient Roman, Ancient Greek, Ancient Persian
From Greek Αρμενια (Armenia)
, which was from Old Persian Armina
, which is itself probably of Armenia origin. This is the name of a country in the Caucasus region, called Hayastan
Possibly derived from Basque asta
"rock" and ur
"water". This was the name of an 8th to 10th-century kingdom of northern Iberia. It is now the name of a Spanish province.
AUSTRALIA(Region & Country)English, Italian, Spanish
Derived from Latin australis
meaning "southern". It was formally adopted as the name of the continent (and later country) by the British administrators of the region in 1824.
BOHEMIA(Region)English, Spanish, Late Roman
From Latin Boiohaemum
, from the name of the Gaulish tribe the Boii
combined with Germanic heim
"home". This is the name of a historical region within the Czech Republic. The region is called Čechy
in Czech, while the country is called Česko
BULGARIA(Country)Late Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
From the name of the Turkic tribe of the Bulgars, possibly from a Turkic root meaning "mixed". This is the name of a country in southeastern Europe.
From a diminutive of Late Latin bustum
meaning "ox pasture". This is the name of towns in Spain.
From Late Latin bustum
meaning "ox pasture". This is the name of several towns in Spain and Italy.
CHAD(Body of Water & Country)English, Spanish
From Arabic تشاد (Tshad)
, derived from a Kanuri word meaning "lake, large expanse of water". This is the name of a lake in central Africa, as well as the country that is named after it. The lake also borders Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon.
From the Roman name FLAVIUS
. This is the name of a Portuguese city which was originally named for the Roman emperor Vespasian, whose family name was Flavius.
COLUMBIA(Region, Settlement, Political Subdivision & River)English, Italian, Spanish
Named after the explorer Christopher Columbus, called Cristoforo Colombo
in Italian (see the surname COLOMBO
). This is the name of several cities in the Americas (including the District of Columbia, also called Washington D.C.), and a river in Canada and the United States. It is also a name used historically to refer to the New World.
CONGO(River & Country)English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Danish
, of uncertain origin, the name of a kingdom in central Africa that existed from the 14th to 19th century. The Congo River (also called the Zaire
River) was named after the kingdom. Belgian and French colonies were established in the 19th century, named after the river, which eventually led to two African countries, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) and the Republic of the Congo.
Means "the new house", from Basque etxe
"house" and berri
"new". This was the name of a village (and castle) in Navarre where the saint Francis Xavier was born.
FRIULI(Region)Italian, English, Spanish
From the name of the Roman town of Forum Iulii (now called Cividale del Friuli
) meaning "forum of Julius". This is the name of a region in northeast Italy.
GHANA(Country)English, French, German, Italian, Spanish
From the name of the Ghana Empire, which was located in the southwestern Sahara and existed up to the 13th century. Ghana
, meaning "warrior" in Mande, was actually the title of the rulers, while the empire itself was more properly known as Awkar
. In 1957 this was adopted as the name of the newly independent country of Ghana, formerly the British colony Gold Coast, despite the fact that the country lies outside the empire's territory.
GUINEA(Region, Country & Island)English, Italian, Spanish, German
From Portuguese Guiné
, which is of unknown meaning, possibly of Berber origin. This name was used by the Portuguese to refer to a portion of western Africa. It was also applied by westerners to the island of New Guinea starting in the 16th century. It is now the name or part of the name of the countries of Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea and Papua New Guinea.
Derived from Basque ibar
meaning "meadow". This is the name of a few Basque towns.
From Latin Lauretum
meaning "laurel grove". This is the name of a town in eastern Italy.
Barrio (district) in Seville, which got its name from a temple which may have been named for a person Macarius
NEPAL(Country)Nepali, Indian, Hindi, English, German, Dutch, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Polish, Sanskrit
From Sanskrit नेपाल (Nepal)
, of unknown meaning. This is the name of a landlocked country in south Asia.
NIGERIA(Country)English, French, Italian, Spanish, German
From the name of the NIGER
River, applied in the 19th century to the British colonial territory in western Africa. It continued to be used after the territory became an independent country in 1960.
PERSIA(Country)Ancient Roman, English, Spanish, Italian
Latin form of Greek Περσις (Persis)
, from Old Persian Parsa
. This is the name used in the West for a region in western Asia, as well as several empires which were based there, including the Achaemenid Empire, Parthian Empire, and Sasanian Empire. This was also the Western name for the country of Iran until 1935, when the king requested that the native name Iran
be used instead.
PORTUGAL(Country)Portuguese, English, French, Spanish, Galician, Catalan, German, Dutch, Swedish, Norwegian, Danish, Croatian, Serbian
, which was derived from PORTUS CALE
, the old name of the city of Porto. The name of the city was later applied to the entire country.
SAMARRA(Settlement)Arabic, English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, French, German
This is the name of a city in Iraq, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate in the 9th century. It was possibly built at the site of the ancient Assyrian city of Surmarrati
, which is of uncertain meaning.
The name of several places in the Spanish-speaking world, in honour of Saint ANNA
This is the name of several cities in Spain and Portugal, so-named for Saint JAMES
(see the given name SANTIAGO
for more information). It is also used for many other cities in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking worlds, notably the capital city of Chile.
SCHWYZ(Settlement & Political Subdivision)German, English, Spanish
Meaning uncertain, possibly related to Old High German suedan
"to burn" or possibly of Celtic origin. This is the name of a town (and a canton named for it) in central Switzerland
VALENCIA(Settlement & Region)Spanish, Italian, English, German
The name of a city and surrounding region in eastern Spain, originally named in Latin Valentia (Edetanorum)
meaning "strength (of the Edetani people)", and derived from Latin valentius
"strength, vigour", from valens
"strong, vigourous". Besides the city in Spain, this is also the name of a city in Venezuala.
From Basque zabal
meaning "large, wide". This is the name of district within the city of Bilbao in Spain.